October 27, 2021 10:18 pm

Implementation and scale-up of a biomass pellet and improved cookstove enterprise in Rwanda

 

This paper reviews the experience    https://bbqpelletsonline.com/    of a for-earnings firm in Rwanda selling biomass pellets and a fan micro-gasification progressed cookstove as a clean cooking opportunity to charcoal. Consumers buy regionally produced biomass pellets and obtain the progressed cookstove on a rent foundation. The fee of the pellets and stove(s) is decrease than the price of cooking with charcoal in the city placing in which our observe takes region. Inyenyeri has been piloting its enterprise model due to the fact that 2012. Using data from an ongoing quantitative impact assessment have a look at, awareness group discussions, and a chain of key informant interviews, we chronicle the firm’s revel in with stove desire, pellet manufacturing, and advertising and marketing, highlighting classes for the design of personal area-led smooth cooking interventions.

We locate that 38% of families advertised to as part of our ongoing effect evaluation examine adopted the pellet and stove device, but that about forty five% of folks who adopted suspended contracts after signing up. The company’s experience with stove desire, pellet production, pricing structures, and customer service techniques have prompted implementation, adoption rates, and scale-up. Customer possibilities for unique stove attributes and willingness of range producers to regulate stoves for nearby situations have inspired each the firm’s desire of range and patron pleasure. In 2015 the company transitioned clients from the Philips range to the Mimi Moto, a choice which created confusion among consumers, and affected adoption costs. Despite the mission of setting up and scaling-up pellet production in relevant Africa, the company elevated production four hundred% between 2014 and 2017 to attain 800,000 kg/year. Importing and keeping pelletizing system in Rwanda is steeply-priced, the deliver of feedstock irregualar, and undercapitalization of the firm have affected production. With admire to advertising, after experimenting with a sign-up price and a minimum monthly purchase of pellets, the company has determined to transition to a pay-as-you-pass system to reduce perceived chance by clients. A high-stage of customer service including in-home visits, free in-domestic restore, and home shipping of pellets are predominant improvements. The lengthy pilot section and the evolutionary nature of the company’s sports illustrate each the complexity of building a marketplace for smooth cooking, and the time required to apprehend nascent markets and patron call for.

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Keywords
AfricaCookstovesHousehold air pollutionImplementation scienceRenewable energySolid gas
Introduction
Over eighty one% of households in sub-Saharan Africa use stable fuels (e.G., dung, crop residues, fuelwood, and charcoal) for cooking (World Bank, 2015). The use of stable fuels in inefficient conventional stoves contributes to household air pollution (HAP), the largest international environmental risk thing for disease burden (Forouzanfar et al., 2015). According to World Health Organization estimates, between 2000 and 2030, there will be eight.1 million untimely deaths among youngsters and 1.7 million untimely deaths among person girls in sub-Saharan Africa attributed to exposure to HAP from cooking (World Bank, 2015).

Rwanda offers an amazing case examine for the challenges that lie ahead for mitigating HAP in Africa. Lower breathing infection is the leading cause of general years of lifestyles lost due to premature mortality (GBD, 2017). With 483 persons in line with rectangular kilometer, Rwanda is Africa’s most densely populated us of a. The overall populace is predicted to increase from about 11 million in 2016 to sixteen.9 million in 2032. Rapid increase is coupled with a speedy urbanization; urban dwellers will double from about 15% to 29% by way of 2030 (Government of Rwanda, 2016a, Government of Rwanda, 2016b; NISR, 2017). Meeting call for for power services for this dynamic and developing population is a prime challenge. The transport of smooth, reachable, low-cost, and sustainable strength for cooking is a urgent trouble.

Nearly all (ninety nine.7%) of Rwanda’s household cooking energy comes from stable fuels, with firewood being the dominant cooking gas (95.7%) in rural regions, and charcoal (50.1%) and firewood (forty five.4%) the most important fuel assets in urban regions (Ndegwa, Breuer, & Hamhaber, 2011; World Bank, 2014). Rwanda has one of the highest rates of non-renewable biomass utilization globally; the fraction of non-renewable biomass fed on with the aid of families exceeds 50%, implying widespread pressure on last wooded area assets (Bailis, Drigo, Ghilardi, & Masera, 2015). The Rwandan authorities’s Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy II (EDPRS) prioritized reduction of woody biomass power consumption from 94% in 2009 to 50% with the aid of 2018 (Government of Rwanda, 2016a, Government of Rwanda, 2016b).

At the same time, markets for clean cooking technologies are restrained. In 2013, over 50% of stoves in the Rwandan progressed cookstove (ICS) marketplace had been primary (i.E. Imparting handiest modest gains in combustion efficiency) using charcoal and fuelwood as enter fuels. Only zero.3% of the ICS marketplace were stoves that would accommodate present day fuels which include liquefied petroleum gasoline (LPG), electricity, alcohol-primarily based fuels or biogas (World Bank, 2014).

Rwanda has been a trying out floor for numerous easy cooking projects. Between 2010 and 2012, the Government of Rwanda Energy, Water and Sanitation Authority in partnership with Dutch SNV encouraged rural households to apply the locally produced clay improved fuelwood cookstove (Canarumwe), and urban families to apply the locally produced charcoal ICS (Canamake). In 2014, in a first-rate government initiative, the Ministry of Health and environmental fitness technology providers Del Agua, in formal settlement with EcoZoom freely disbursed three hundred,000 timber rocket stoves (EcoZoom Dura) and superior water filters to coins-limited rural families (World Bank, 2014). This effort, financially subsidized thru the Clean Development Mechanism, did not generate sufficient budget thru carbon finance to preserve the program. As a end result, efforts to bring the program to scale failed (World Bank, 2014, World Bank, 2015).

The challenges of excessive burden of disorder from HAP, populace boom quotes and associated stress on sources, and latent demand for contemporary electricity offerings calls for good sized innovation in advertising and marketing fashions and public coverage to help the smooth cooking area. Specifically, innovation is needed in the supply of sustainable clean fuels, and in get entry to to affordable clean cooking technology. The family energy zone is guided by means of the Rwanda Energy Policy, Energy Sector Strategic Plan, and Rwanda precise goals under the rubric of the global Sustainable Energy for All (SEforALL). Ensuring the steady deliver and sustainable use of woody biomass for gas is one of the principal challenges Rwanda faces in reaching SEforALL goals. Together, these packages have the following targets: (a) bridge the 20% gap in biomass power production and intake towards a sustainable solution; (b) by means of 2030, all Rwandan households should use more efficient cookstoves than presently in use; (c) charcoal losses ought to be decreased by using 30% in 2018 from the 2009 baseline via use of stepped forward technology and enhancements in its cost chain; and (d) advancement of replacement cooking fuels including biomass pellets, biogas digesters, and LPG (Government of Rwanda, 2016a, Government of Rwanda, 2016b). Quick evaluation of the scope of the problem and proposed timelines and development so far shows that the Government of Rwanda will now not meet the stated objectives. Innovative commercial enterprise models supporting development of the clean cooking quarter are urgently needed.

Inyenyeri a Rwandan Social Benefit Company, Ltd.
Inyenyeri describes itself as a ‘social benefit company’. This type of non-public zone entity combines the features of conventional for-income corporation and non-profit/NGO charters to create a hybrid entity ideally suited to social organisations. Inyenyeri has been operating in Rwanda since 2011. The Inyenyeri model couples the sale of regionally produced biomass pellets with the hire of one of the cleanest burning biomass cookstoves. Inyenyeri currently rentals a fan micro-gasification cookstove referred to as the Mimi Moto™ which has been evaluated in a laboratory setting as an International Workshop Agreement (IWA) Tier 4 stove (CSU, 2015).1 At present, the Inyenyeri model includes having customers sign a contract to buy a deliver of biomass pellets and get hold of the stove or stoves, on a rent foundation. Pellets are produced in a pelletizing manufacturing unit at the seashores of Lake Kivu from sustainably sourced biomass feedstock (e.G., eucalyptus bushes and branches). Inyenyeri focuses on advertising the pellets because fan micro-gasification stoves are a ways too highly-priced for nearly all Rwandan households.2 By pricing pellets competitively with charcoal, households can undertake purifier fuels and technology at a cost on par or beneath the fee of their baseline household cooking gadget. As a part of their business version Inyenyeri gives free delivery, training, maintenance, and replacement of stoves.

Inyenyeri is positioned in Gisenyi, Rubavu District (Fig. 1) in northwestern Rwanda. Gisenyi is Rwanda’s fifth biggest metropolis with a population of over eighty three,000 human beings (World Population Review, 2018). Inyenyeri chose Rwanda for its operations due to the urgent want for smooth cookstoves and more green biomass fuels in-u . S . A ., and due to the relative ease of doing enterprise.

for-earnings firm in Rwanda selling biomass pellets and a fan micro-gasification progressed cookstove as a clean cooking opportunity to charcoal. Consumers buy regionally produced biomass pellets and obtain the progressed cookstove on a rent foundation. The fee of the pellets and stove(s) is decrease than the price of cooking with charcoal in the city placing in which our observe takes region. Inyenyeri has been piloting its enterprise model due to the fact that 2012. Using data from an ongoing quantitative impact assessment have a look at, awareness group discussions, and a chain of key informant interviews, we chronicle the firm’s revel in with stove desire, pellet manufacturing, and advertising and marketing, highlighting classes for the design of personal area-led smooth cooking interventions.

We locate that 38% of families advertised to as part of our ongoing effect evaluation examine adopted the pellet and stove device, but that about forty five% of folks who adopted suspended contracts after signing up. The company’s experience with stove desire, pellet production, pricing structures, and customer service techniques have prompted implementation, adoption rates, and scale-up. Customer possibilities for unique stove attributes and willingness of range producers to regulate stoves for nearby situations have inspired each the firm’s desire of range and patron pleasure. In 2015 the company transitioned clients from the Philips range to the Mimi Moto, a choice which created confusion among consumers, and affected adoption costs. Despite the mission of setting up and scaling-up pellet production in relevant Africa, the company elevated production four hundred% between 2014 and 2017 to attain 800,000 kg/year. Importing and keeping pelletizing system in Rwanda is steeply-priced, the deliver of feedstock irregualar, and undercapitalization of the firm have affected production. With admire to advertising, after experimenting with a sign-up price and a minimum monthly purchase of pellets, the company has determined to transition to a pay-as-you-pass system to reduce perceived chance by clients. A high-stage of customer service including in-home visits, free in-domestic restore, and home shipping of pellets are predominant improvements. The lengthy pilot section and the evolutionary nature of the company’s sports illustrate each the complexity of building a marketplace for smooth cooking, and the time required to apprehend nascent markets and patron call for.Over eighty one% of households in sub-Saharan Africa use stable fuels (e.G., dung, crop residues, fuelwood, and charcoal) for cooking (World Bank, 2015). The use of stable fuels in inefficient conventional stoves contributes to household air pollution (HAP), the largest international environmental risk thing for disease burden (Forouzanfar et al., 2015). According to World Health Organization estimates, between 2000 and 2030, there will be eight.1 million untimely deaths among youngsters and 1.7 million untimely deaths among person girls in sub-Saharan Africa attributed to exposure to HAP from cooking (World Bank, 2015).

Rwanda offers an amazing case examine for the challenges that lie ahead for mitigating HAP in Africa. Lower breathing infection is the leading cause of general years of lifestyles lost due to premature mortality (GBD, 2017). With 483 persons in line with rectangular kilometer, Rwanda is Africa’s most densely populated us of a. The overall populace is predicted to increase from about 11 million in 2016 to sixteen.9 million in 2032. Rapid increase is coupled with a speedy urbanization; urban dwellers will double from about 15% to 29% by way of 2030 (Government of Rwanda, 2016a, Government of Rwanda, 2016b; NISR, 2017). Meeting call for for power services for this dynamic and developing population is a prime challenge. The transport of smooth, reachable, low-cost, and sustainable strength for cooking is a urgent trouble.

Nearly all (ninety nine.7%) of Rwanda’s household cooking energy comes from stable fuels, with firewood being the dominant cooking gas (95.7%) in rural regions, and charcoal (50.1%) and firewood (forty five.4%) the most important fuel assets in urban regions (Ndegwa, Breuer, & Hamhaber, 2011; World Bank, 2014). Rwanda has one of the highest rates of non-renewable biomass utilization globally; the fraction of non-renewable biomass fed on with the aid of families exceeds 50%, implying widespread pressure on last wooded area assets (Bailis, Drigo, Ghilardi, & Masera, 2015). The Rwandan authorities’s Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy II (EDPRS) prioritized reduction of woody biomass power consumption from 94% in 2009 to 50% with the aid of 2018 (Government of Rwanda, 2016a, Government of Rwanda, 2016b).

At the same time, markets for clean cooking technologies are restrained. In 2013, over 50% of stoves in the Rwandan progressed cookstove (ICS) marketplace had been primary (i.E. Imparting handiest modest gains in combustion efficiency) using charcoal and fuelwood as enter fuels. Only zero.3% of the ICS marketplace were stoves that would accommodate present day fuels which include liquefied petroleum gasoline (LPG), electricity, alcohol-primarily based fuels or biogas (World Bank, 2014).

Rwanda has been a trying out floor for numerous easy cooking projects. Between 2010 and 2012, the Government of Rwanda Energy, Water and Sanitation Authority in partnership with Dutch SNV encouraged rural households to apply the locally produced clay improved fuelwood cookstove (Canarumwe), and urban families to apply the locally produced charcoal ICS (Canamake). In 2014, in a first-rate government initiative, the Ministry of Health and environmental fitness technology providers Del Agua, in formal settlement with EcoZoom freely disbursed three hundred,000 timber rocket stoves (EcoZoom Dura) and superior water filters to coins-limited rural families (World Bank, 2014). This effort, financially subsidized thru the Clean Development Mechanism, did not generate sufficient budget thru carbon finance to preserve the program. As a end result, efforts to bring the program to scale failed (World Bank, 2014, World Bank, 2015).

The challenges of excessive burden of disorder from HAP, populace boom quotes and associated stress on sources, and latent demand for contemporary electricity offerings calls for good sized innovation in advertising and marketing fashions and public coverage to help the smooth cooking area. Specifically, innovation is needed in the supply of sustainable clean fuels, and in get entry to to affordable clean cooking technology. The family energy zone is guided by means of the Rwanda Energy Policy, Energy Sector Strategic Plan, and Rwanda precise goals under the rubric of the global Sustainable Energy for All (SEforALL). Ensuring the steady deliver and sustainable use of woody biomass for gas is one of the principal challenges Rwanda faces in reaching SEforALL goals. Together, these packages have the following targets: (a) bridge the 20% gap in biomass power production and intake towards a sustainable solution; (b) by means of 2030, all Rwandan households should use more efficient cookstoves than presently in use; (c) charcoal losses ought to be decreased by using 30% in 2018 from the 2009 baseline via use of stepped forward technology and enhancements in its cost chain; and (d) advancement of replacement cooking fuels including biomass pellets, biogas digesters, and LPG (Government of Rwanda, 2016a, Government of Rwanda, 2016b). Quick evaluation of the scope of the problem and proposed timelines and development so far shows that the Government of Rwanda will now not meet the stated objectives. Innovative commercial enterprise models supporting development of the clean cooking quarter are urgently needed.

Inyenyeri a Rwandan Social Benefit Company, Ltd.
Inyenyeri describes itself as a ‘social benefit company’. This type of non-public zone entity combines the features of conventional for-income corporation and non-profit/NGO charters to create a hybrid entity ideally suited to social organisations. Inyenyeri has been operating in Rwanda since 2011. The Inyenyeri model couples the sale of regionally produced biomass pellets with the hire of one of the cleanest burning biomass cookstoves. Inyenyeri currently rentals a fan micro-gasification cookstove referred to as the Mimi Moto™ which has been evaluated in a laboratory setting as an International Workshop Agreement (IWA) Tier 4 stove (CSU, 2015).1 At present, the Inyenyeri model includes having customers sign a contract to buy a deliver of biomass pellets and get hold of the stove or stoves, on a rent foundation. Pellets are produced in a pelletizing manufacturing unit at the seashores of Lake Kivu from sustainably sourced biomass feedstock (e.G., eucalyptus bushes and branches). Inyenyeri focuses on advertising the pellets because fan micro-gasification stoves are a ways too highly-priced for nearly all Rwandan households.2 By pricing pellets competitively with charcoal, households can undertake purifier fuels and technology at a cost on par or beneath the fee of their baseline household cooking gadget. As a part of their business version Inyenyeri gives free delivery, training, maintenance, and replacement of stoves.

Inyenyeri is positioned in Gisenyi, Rubavu District (Fig. 1) in northwestern Rwanda. Gisenyi is Rwanda’s fifth biggest metropolis with a population of over eighty three,000 human beings (World Population Review, 2018). Inyenyeri chose Rwanda for its operations due to the urgent want for smooth cookstoves and more green biomass fuels in-u . S . A ., and due to the relative ease of doing enterprise.

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